Anson County at one time included all of western and central North Carolina–practically all of the “Back County.” This work attempts to identify the lion’s share of the county’s residents prior to 1790, and as many as 6,500 Anson County inhabitants are listed herein. The abstracts are presented in record groups under the following headings: land grants, land grant surveys, deeds, county court minutes, civil suits, wills, probate reports, and petitions. The land grants customarily give the name of the grantee and the number, location, and date of the grant. The deeds give the names of the principal parties, date, location, and description of the property, names of witnesses, and page number of the original deed book. The county court minutes are a mine of information, in particular the proving of deeds, which is practically a list of real estate transfers. The wills, typically, give the name of the testator, names of his wife and children and other family members, description of the bequest, date, names of executors and witnesses, and a variety of incidental information.